6 July 2023
Article: ‘Fast-Charging Station Leipzig – the Floating Roof on a computer-generated Endless Support’

To manage the spatial and geometrical restrictions for the Fast-Charging Station Leipzig efficiently, the entire process was executed through a closed digital process chain. Our team worked closely with the architects to develop the geometry for the filigree support structure with the help of an evolutionary optimisation algorithm.

Philipp Eisenbach, Klaus Bollinger and Moritz Heimrath from B+G wrote an in-depth article in ‘Stahlbau’ (Ernst & Sohn, Berlin) together with Jon Prengel from raumwerk Gesellschaft für Architektur und Stadtplanung mbH about the project development.

PDF for download ↓
More about Fast-Charging Station Leipzig →

5 December 2022
Autodesk MEP Coordination Guideline

As part of the Revit User Group DACH, we co-authored the Autodesk MEP Coordination Guideline, providing a comprehensive overview and support for designers interested in the topic and deeper insights for field experts. The document represents the holistic view of the coordination process for MEP openings throughout the design phases.

Authors: Tanja Gutena (Architect, gmp architects), Fabian Matschinsky (MEP-Engineer, HL-Technik) and Alexander Hofbeck (B+G)

German Webinar ↗
Guideline ↗

22 October 2022
B+G on GitHub

Over the years, our Design Technology Group has developed various tools, partially released to the public, e.g., on the Autodesk App Store. We started our GitHub organisation to evolve our developments, maintaining and enabling collaboration on our public and private coding projects.

Feel free to follow us, fork our public coding projects or look at what we are up to!

B+G GitHub Organisation ↗
Design Technology →

13 June 2022
‘Anthropomorphic Machine’

The interactive and performative robotic installation ‘Anthropomorphic Machine’ comprises pneumatic rubber ‘muscles’, steel tendons, a deformable tensegrity skeletal structure, a circulatory system of compressed air, and a vision and computational system, allowing it to sense and react in the presence of humans.

The machine is linked to multiple cameras, which allows it to respond to the person’s movements by moving parts or all its 498 stainless-steel struts in the skeletal structure with the help of its circulatory system of compressed air.

For this eight-meter-high sculpture, exhibited at the Science Gallery, performance artist Stelarc collaborated with Melbourne School of Design, LLDS Architecture, with PhD students at the School of Computer Science and Information Systems, Pelican Studios, Festo and Bollinger+Grohman.

melbourne.sciencegallery.com ↗
llds.com.au ↗

18 March 2022
‘Remnants of a Future Architecture’

‘Remnants of a Future Architecture’ is a series of architectural artefacts investigating new digital fabrication methods and their impact on future architecture.

Studio Roland Snooks developed Remnant 1 in collaboration with RMIT Architecture | Tectonic Formation Lab and FormX Technology using Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) for the 3D printing process. The printing is executed by stacking layers of metal on top of each other with the help of a welding robot.

Paper by Roland Snooks ↗

4 January 2022
‘Art-Nouveau’ Balconies Bona-Lemercier & B+G

The design for new balcony structures of a Parisian residential building explores the concept of mapping results from a topological optimisation onto a lattice spaceframe structure. Inspired by Hector Guimard's ‘Art-Nouveau’ metro stations, the computational design combines principles from structural optimisation with an organic design language that expresses the flow of forces.
The idea for the fabrication involves utilising metal 3D printing technologies to create a 1:1 construction of the design.

Image: Bona-Lemercier Architectes

23 December 2021
Spähikel structure completed

Leidorf GmbH has recently finished assembling the primary structural elements of the Spähikel research pavilion.
The mobile structure can be encountered in different locations within the forests of Upper Austria soon.
Photo: mostlikely architecture

15 December 2021
Book Release: ‘Fluid Bodies’

The book chapter ‘Fluid Structures – Formed by Force’ co-authored by Adam Orlinski & Moritz Heimrath, was recently published as part of the new book: ‘Fluid Bodies – Methods for Casting New Esthetics’.
The book features contributions by:
Paul Clousier, Luca Conte, Anton Defant, Marco Dessi, Studio Stefan Diez, Anna Heimrath, Moritz Heimrath, Cathrine Hu, Mato Johannik, Ursula Klein, August Kocherscheidt, Christine König, Quirin Krumbholz, Studio Greg Lynn, Adam Orlinski, Bence Pap, Giulio Polita, Studio Klaas de Rycke, Michael Tingen, and Rupert Zallmann
‘Fluid Bodies – Methods for Casting New Esthetics’
Rupert Zallmann, Editor and the Institute of Architecture at the University of Applied Arts Vienna (Eds.)
Edition Angewandte, Birkhäuser Basel, 2022
ISBN: 9783035625868

30 November 2021
Karamba3D Template: 3DM/GH, XLS, K3D, C#

The recently developed 'Karamba3D Template' establishes a connection between 3D geometry sourced from Rhinoceros3D layers and spreadsheet data that is organized in Excel.
This allows to organise all the model data with a powerful data structure and to interact with all input parameters in a simplified and controlled way.
The template provides assistance with load combinations by automatically assigning information to different parts of the model. Furthermore, it facilitates geometry management and carries out various modeling operations and checks to ensure that the model geometry is properly prepared for calculation.
The Karamba3D template allows users to build Karamba3D models with high model complexities, while simplifying the interface and optimising the workflow and .
The 'Karamba3D Template' was developed by our 'Design Technology' group.

29 November 2021
Book Release: ‘Conceptual Joining’

The chapter ‘Encoded Structures - Constraint-Based Design of Modular Beams’, co-authored by Adam Orlinski, Clemens Preisinger and Moritz Heimrath, was recently published as part of the new book: ‘Conceptual Joining: Wood Structures from Detail to Utopia’.
‘Conceptual Joining: Wood Structures from Detail to Utopia’
Lukas Allner, Christoph Kaltenbrunner, Daniela Kröhnert, Philipp Reinsberg,
University of Applied Arts Vienna & Birkhaüser, 2021
ISBN: 9783035624359

read full book ↗

1 June 2021
Final Exhibition: ‘Fluid Bodies’

The final result of the art-based research project ‘Fluid Bodies’ will be exhibited at the Wotruba-Atelier.
Vernisage, 1 June 2021, 6 p.m
Rustenschacher Allee 2–4, 1020 Vienna, Austria
FWF Research Program, University of Applied Arts Vienna
with Madame Architects and Bollinger+Grohmann

2 February 2021
XXL Robotic CNC ‒ Fabrication Start

The robotic fabrication process for the new mobile pavilion of the Austrian Federal Forests Association has started.

The small project is a movable forest observatory that hosts multiple guests.
The structure consists of Kerto LVL Q-panels that were CNC-cut by a robotic arm. The cutting pattern was generated with the help of a topology optimisation routine that responds to a series of loads while respecting a specific architectural design domain, which was developed within the art-based research project ‘Fluid Bodies - Casting Without Formwork’.

Video: Leidorf

1 January 2021
Predicting Embodied Carbon of Structures

Sandie Kate Fenton is currently conducting her PhD research: ‘A machine learning approach for predicting embodied carbon of structures at early design stages’ within a collaborative framework between Bollinger+Grohmann, énsa-Versailles, and Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

The research focuses on the embodied carbon footprint of building structures and aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of design-driven factors influencing the footprint.
Its objective is to facilitate access to early-design assessments that use Machine Learning regression models to predict embodied carbon footprints using descriptive data available at early-design stages rather than quantitative data.

The expected output is an interactive tool for data-driven low-carbon structural design.

20 October 2020
Spähikel reseach pavilion: mostlikely architecture × B+G

Spähikel is a research project that explores the application of 'Topology Optimisation' in creating efficient, lightweight structures within predefined poly-surface design domains. This involves utilising input geometry, support areas, and various load sets to iteratively converge on a condensed structural shape.
Through an iterative calculation process, an algorithm cuts material and incrementally refines the design, uncovering patterns demonstrating enhanced structural performance while substantially reducing material usage.

22 September 2020
Autodesk Modelling Guideline

Autodesk’s first digital edition of ‘Leitfadens für die BIM Modellierung in Revit’ (Guide to BIM Modelling in Revit) was developed closely with architecture, MEP, and structural engineering representatives. The goal is to provide users with valuable guidance to help improve their work and acquire more profound insights into modelling standards for BIM projects with Autodesk Revit. We contributed with our knowledge of the analytical model, MEP opening coordination and general modelling rules.

Authors: Alexander Hofbeck, Florian Gschwind
Publisher: Autodesk

Guideline ↗

1 February 2018
‘Fluid Bodies’

We are joining the art-based research project ‘Fluid Bodies - Casting Without Formwork’ at the University of Applied Arts Vienna.
The research project challenges conventional formwork ideas and assumptions about bringing materials into form.

The project’s objective is to explore hidden potentials in the relationship between form, fabrication methods, and material behaviour ‒ and to test existing assumptions through cross-disciplinary efforts that merge architecture, sculpture, structural design, emerging fabrication technologies, and fashion design.

The expected result is a series of large-scale prototypic objects produced by various methods enriched from different disciplines.

The research is funded by the Austrian Science Fund FWF, and its ‘PEEK’ program.

19 January 2018

For the Triennial EXTRA in 2018, the National Gallery of Victoria in Melbourne commissioned a large-scale, interactive installation designed by Studio Roland Snooks in collaboration with sound artist Philip Samartzis and Bollinger+Grohmann.

‘Floe’ is a speculative architectural sound installation tower made from seventy unique overlapping semitranslucent 3D-printed polymer panels resembling an iceberg in Antarctica.

The panels are attached to a filigree steel lattice with CNC-cut steel blades, machine folded to the exact angle and shape. The structural system of the steel lattice was optimised regarding the force flow within the structure, with steel thicknesses varying from 3 to 8 mm. Overlapping elements are connected via steel bolts to assemble bigger cross-sections.

Video of assembly ↗

18 January 2018

E-slab is a new type of concrete slab we have been advisors on and developed along with Snøhetta.

The E-slab system incorporates ventilation, electricity, and sprinklers within the slab without needing a ceiling below the slab. This solution will save approximately 400–500 mm of ceiling height on each floor compared to a traditional hollow core slab i.e.

In addition, the prefabrication process allows for a quick construction phase on site and facilitates design for disassembly.

The slab system is currently being incorporated into several ongoing projects.

1 February 2017
Book Release: ‘Structural Surface’

This publication presents the computational design, optimisation, and realisation of a freeform object from high-performance concrete. It illustrates the design phase, the manufacturing and the so-called Möbiusbank itself. Moreover, two short papers give comprehensive explanations of the employed computational structural optimisation as well as a novel joining technique developed for the project.

Manfred Grohmann, Philipp Eisenbach, Moritz Rumpf: ‘Structural Surface – Computational design, optimisation and realisation of a freeform object from high performance concrete’, University of Kassel, Blurb Inc. San Francisco,
ISBN: 978-1-36-640026-0

30 January 2017
Book: ‘Processing of Slender Concrete Shells - Fabrication and Installation’

PhD Dissertation of Philipp Eisenbach is about lightweight structures, and material-optimised systems are relevant in the building industry, particularly in the design of concrete structures.

This is not only for aesthetic reasons but also to use materials in a resource-conserving way. As one measure to reduce cross-section dimensions, increasing strength characteristics postulates the prefabrication of cementitious materials under laboratory conditions.

This thesis examines the contradiction between the possibility of realising slender concrete elements and the complexity of the discontinued homogeneity arising from necessary segmentations. Proposals of implementation strategies are demonstrated and verified based on selected case studies.

Philipp Eisenbach; ‘Processing of Slender Concrete Shells - Fabrication and Installation’; Kassel University Press,
ISBN: 978-3-7376-0258-7

1 June 2015
Concrete Mobile

Within the framework of the IASS (International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures), a 'Concrete Mobile' was developed as a stable hanging equilibrium that combines two fundamental design principles.

The first is the structural concept of concrete construction utilising prestressing techniques. The second is the captivating notion of a mobile object in its delicate state of balance. The intention is to evoke a sense of intrigue by juxtaposing the perceived lightness of the floating structure with the inherent heaviness of concrete, creating a deliberate element of confusion.

Concrete Mobile – Exhibition Amsterdamrchitektur Verlags GmbH, Berlin; January 2015

Image: Stefanie Pretnar

25 June 2014
'Möbiusban(k)d' ‒ University Kassel

'Möbiusban(k)d' ‒ Seamless Rigid Connections of Thin Concrete Shells

In 2014, a student project was initiated at the University of Kassel to design and construct a slender concrete shell within a limited timeframe of 14 weeks. Under the guidance of architects and structural engineers, 27 students from the School of Architecture developed proposals for a shell structure to be located prominently on campus.

The project received sponsorship from DUCON®, providing the necessary high-performance concrete and mesh reinforcement. Following a competition phase, a concept for a Möbius strip-shaped concrete bench was selected as the winning design, and subsequent optimisation and construction phases were carried out.

read more
5 June 2014
‘Composite Wing’

Studio Roland Snooks was commissioned to develop the design for ‘The Future is Here’, a travelling exhibition organised by the Design Museum in London, with Melbourne as the first destination overseas. The design comprises two big tables and one small table with a cantilever fabricated from 3 mm glass fibre composite elements.

The project aimed to combine surface, structure, and ornament into intricate and irreducible assemblages. Glass fibre-composite material has the advantage of incorporating different materials to manipulate the structural behaviour of the final composite. Here the inlays or ‘beams’ of the composite are based on high-density foam placed according to an agent-based algorithm, defining the location and shape of the pattern.

Karamba3D was utilised to quickly exchange the different geometries and return structural information to the agents. The ’beams’ depth and width follow the logic of bending moments within the surface, which in turn gains its strength from the strategic placement of the beams and their dimensions accordingly. This strategy enables the surface to remain 3 mm thick while spanning and cantilevering considerable distances.

The project’s complexity was made possible by developing robotic fabrication techniques, including the extrusion of the fine-scale surface articulation.

14 January 2014
'Parapluie' ‒ Ultra Thin Concrete Shell

'Parapluie' ‒ Ultra Thin Concrete Shell made of UHPC by Activating Membrane Effects.

'Parapluie' is an architectural concrete shell structure for a bus stop shelter designed for serial production by multiple reusing of the formwork. It is made of ultra-high-performance concrete that is reinforced with a stapled micro mat reinforcement distributed over the whole cross-section with zero distance to the outer surfaces.

That material composition leads to a highly ductile behaviour substantiated by the biaxial homogenous cross-section layout that allows a linear elastic structural analysis.

The aim was to achieve a concrete shell that is as slender and lightweight as possible. By a parametric form-finding process, a system was developed that is able to transfer loads of the shell primarily by membrane effects. The result is a concrete shell with no steel-embedded items and an edge thickness of less than 25mm.

4 September 2013

For the Sound Bites City exhibition at the RMIT Gallery, Jon Cherry and Nicholas Williams developed ‘The Torus’, a toroidal shape timber grid shell structure with a 21-channel loudspeaker system. Karamba3D was utilised as a design tool in the early design process, enabling a good workflow between the architects’ design platform and the engineers’ structural analysis tools.

Paper on the project ↗

6 December 2012
Multi-Objective Optimisation: Octopus

Octopus is a multi-objective, evolutionary solver available for Rhino’s Grasshoppher3D.
Robert Vierlinger developed the plug-in in close cooperation with Bollinger+Grohmann, and it is being used at B+G on a daily basis.
The genetic algorithm allows one to search for multiple goals at once and produces a range of optimised trade-off solutions between the extremes of each goal.
It works similarly to David Rutten's Galapagos but introduces the Pareto principle for evaluating multiple objectives within one optimisation process.

Food4Rhino | Octopus ↗

30 June 2011
Austrian ‘Baupreis’, category Research and Development

Klaus Bollinger, Clemens Preisinger, and Arne Hofmann were awarded the Austria ‘Baupreis’ in the category of Research and Development for the research project ‘Algorithmic Generation of Complex Space Frames’.

30 June 2010
Parametric Engineering: Karamba3D

Karamba3D is a parametric structural engineering tool which provides accurate analysis of spatial trusses, frames, and shells.
It is fully embedded in the parametric design environment of Grasshopper3D, a plug-in for the 3D modelling tool Rhinoceros.
Clemens Preisinger is developing Karamba3D in close cooperation with Bollinger+Grohmann's Vienna office.

Karamba3d ↗

2 August 2009
'Brücke Reeden' ‒ FLOSUNDK

'Brücke Reeden' is a competition entry for a bridge design that utilized GENTs (Generic Exploration + Navigation Tool for Structural Design).

The bridge's supporting structure takes the form of an irregular truss structure, which is generated through an optimisation algorithm to suit the unique requirements of the situation. The approach towards the structural design involves an agent system, where each truss element follows specific behavioural rules during the generation process. The behaviour of each element is influenced by the forces acting upon it as well as the deformation of the overall model.

The outcome is a structure that is both irregular and effective, aligning perfectly with the architects' vision.

Architects: FLOSUNDK (architektur+urbanistik)

2 July 2008
'Infobox' - Competition Entry

The competition entry for 'Infobox' - an elevated overlook and info point for the Vienna Central Station construction site - was one of our early projects that employed an algorithmic approach to generate and optimise the column arrangement supporting the elevated building structure.
Although the box itself features a regular structural grid, the columns were designed to adapt to the irregular and disordered ground conditions and limited areas available for foundations.

Architect: Michael Wallraff

Infobox ↗

25 June 2008
GENTS ‒ 'Generic Exploration + Navigation Tool for Structural Design'

The research project 'Algorithmic Generation of Complex Space Frames' conducted at the University of Applied Arts Vienna has led to the development of a unique tool called GENTs. This tool creates diverse framework structures and goes beyond mere structural optimisation. GENTs integrates state-of-the-art optimisation algorithms with powerful multiprocessor static software to enable the generation of complex spatial structural systems.

20 June 2008
Algorithmic Generation of Complex Space Frames

'Algorithmic Generation of Complex Space Frames' is a research project conducted at the University of Applied Arts at the Institut for Structural Design.

This research investigates the algorithmic generation of complex space frames and their relevance in structural engineering and architectural design. Contemporary structural design prioritises regularity and effectiveness, but there is a growing interest and demand for irregular and free-form designs. Existing design methods must be improved in developing optimised irregular structures, creating a gap between architectural requirements and available tools. Complex non-regular structures have inherent load-bearing capacities, requiring a holistic approach. Modern technology enables efficient analysis of alternative solutions, generating systems with emergent load-bearing capabilities. The research explores innovative approaches for developing effective irregular forms while integrating practical construction principles.